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Home » Status at Glance across all Pillars by Key Results Areas

Status at Glance across all Pillars by Key Results Areas

BOX 1 - Status at a Glance
Vision 2016 Pillars by Key Result Area
Areas of Progress (â–²),Some Concerns (â–º)and Major Challenges (â–¼)
Vision Pillar 1: ‘An Educated, Informed Nation’
Universal, Continuing and Quality Education
â–² Botswana has made considerable investment in Education
â–² Result is very high enrollment at primary school level
â–² More secondary school students, and more are graduating
â–² Significantly higher enrollment at tertiary level, in part due to opening up to private institutions
â–º But, enrollment still drops off considerably at secondary level, especially in rural areas
â–º Some questions re ‘quality’ of education (low test scores)
â–º Early childhood education not seen as a priority
â–º Lack of data makes monitoring ‘quality’ difficult
â–¼ Not responding to Vision 2016 expectation of embracing other languages in educational system
An Informed Society
â–² A rising and high literacy rate (aided by an increase in education)
â–² Improved access to information - via print and electronic media – through increased private sector presence
â–² Improved access to telephones
â–º Concern by some that lack of ‘freedom of information’ legislation impedes ‘openness and transparency’
â–º Lack of Setswana language newspaper and community radio may limit information flow, particularly in rural areas
An IT Literate Society
â–² Increased connectivity of villages to the electricity grid improves access to computers
â–º But, Botswana still in early stages of a national ICT program
â–º Lack of adequate electricity supply (connectivity) and skilled HR
â–º Botswana declining on international rankings of ‘e-government readiness’
Vision Pillar 2: ‘A Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation’
Economic Growth and Diversification
â–² Historically, quite impressive growth, though slowing down in recent years
â–² Botswana’s ranking by international business scales improving – ‘good governance’ fostering a good investment climate
â–º But, has not translated into an inflow of investment
â–º Both growth and investment well below targets – may need to readjust targets
â–º The economy has not diversified as planned
â–º Several structural factors may account for this – small market; small population growing at less than 1%; insufficient skilled HR; landlocked country; low level of ICT; electricity issues; HIV/AIDS.
Sustainable Development
â–² Communities becoming involved in the planning, use and preservation of their environmental assets, including wildlife
â–² Good success in managing some wildlife species (especially elephants)
â–º But, dangerous drop in wildlife populations for some other species
â–º Limited arable land (5%) results in potential for land-use conflict between various competing needs/uses/interests – commercial farming; traditional farming and hunting; tourism; wildlife management; mining; and, urbanization.
â–¼ Agriculture has been in decline with dropping productivity. A turnaround means a need to address issues of skills, innovation, R&D, incentives, etc. as well as balancing the need for greater commercialization with the traditions and culture of communities.
â–² A positive movement in the workforce to greater gender balance
â–² Expansion of Informal Sector over the last 10 years (40+%), helping to create employment for ‘hard to employ’ Batswana
â–º But, within the Formal Sector, most of the employment growth is in the public sector; limited growth in the private sector
â–º Mining, the largest private sector industry, only generates some 4% employment
â–¼ Unemployment is still very high and not decreasing, but CSO data make precision difficult
â–¼ Unless the economy starts creating/generating new jobs, the target of ‘full employment’ will not be achievable
Vision Pillar 3: ‘A Compassionate, Just and Caring Nation’
Poverty and Income Distribution
â–² Significant improvements are being made in the fight against poverty, according to a number of indicators (prevalence of underweight children; access to safe drinking water; access to adequate sanitation)
â–² The % of the population living below the Income Poverty Line has decreased significantly (47% in 1993 to 28% in 2005)
â–º But, for a ‘medium-income’ country, still a serious problem with poverty. Many of the issues are ‘structural’, noted above.
â–º Significant variation in standard of living between rural and urban areas (e.g. access to adequate sanitation – 32% vs. 77%)
â–º But, too little sub-national data to better understand the extent and nature of poverty across the country
â–ºOn an international ranking basis, Botswana ranks low on the Human Development Index (reflecting human welfare), largely due to low life expectancy due to HIV/AIDS – 126th worldwide; and, 13th in Africa.
â–º Movement from the ‘traditional’ to the ‘nuclear’ family and erosion of the extended family due to effects of HIV/AIDS removes some traditional support systems, putting more pressure on issue of ‘poverty’
â–¼Vision target of ‘eradicating absolute poverty’ not likely achievable
Quantity and Quality of Health Services
â–² Botswana has a well-established and accessible health infrastructure
â–º But, some key health outcomes are declining (Infant and Child Mortality rates)
â–º May be related to extra stress put on health care due to HIV/AIDS
â–º And, too few highly qualified medical practitioners across the system (Access to various health professionals - doctors, nurses, family welfare educators - varies significantly across the country)
â–º Improved health education training and skill levels of health professionals in general likely needed
â–º Data problems impede reporting on progress
Combating HIV/AIDS
â–² Botswana has one of the most progressive and significantly funded set of programs to combat HIV/AIDS
â–² Some progress has been made for some demographic groups (pregnant women, aged 15-49) and people aged 15-19 years
â–º But, little or no progress for other demographic groups
â–º And, incidence is still extremely high, even for Southern African countries
â–º Creates major social and economic problems for Botswana – orphans; breakdown of family structure; low or no population growth; lost HR and skills; absenteeism; lost income; etc.
â–º Too little exposure and discussion of some of the significant drivers of HIV/AIDS – cross-generational sex; gender-power relations; implicit acceptance of multiple partners, regardless of marital status
â–¼ Vision goal of ‘no new HIV infections by 2016’ not likely realistic
â–¼ Negative impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic runs across all Vision 2016 Pillars
Vision Pillar 4: ‘A Safe and Secure Nation’
Crime, Safety and Security
â–² There has been a drop in the incidence of road accidents and road fatalities
â–² Botswana continues to be perceived as one of the safest countries in Africa (though declining on a worldwide scale)
â–º Most types of crime are increasing , and overall crime rate has risen dramatically
â–º ‘Burglary and theft’ represent ¾ of all crime, though ‘violent crime’ is rising (to now represent 20% of all crime reported)
â–º Violence against women represents some 40% of all violent crime reported
â–º Key considerations – impact of illegal immigrants; unemployment and increase in urban slums; view of gender in society; etc.
â–º ‘White collar’ crime is increasing at a dramatic rate. More sophisticated and more difficult to detect.
â–¼ Vision goal of ‘eliminating serious and violent crime’ not likely to be achieved unless current trend reverses
Professional Public Security Service
â–² Some improvements noted in the training and equipping of the BPS and BDF and recruitment of women into the Forces.
â–² Improved infrastructure to deal with newer forms of crime ( ‘white collar’) and major threats (such as ‘disaster preparedness’)
â–º But, some evidence that the public has less confidence in the Police
Vision Pillar 5: ‘An Open, Democratic and Accountable Nation’
Responsible and Accountable Leadership
â–² Botswana ranked highly by many Regional and International sources in terms of standards of good governance, including ‘political stability and absence of violence’ and ‘government effectiveness’
â–² The country also sets the example for other countries in Africa in terms of ‘control of corruption’ (ranked number 1 in Africa)
â–² Government has put in place many institutions and practices to enhance responsible and accountable leadership – the independence of the three branches of government (Executive, Legislature and the Judiciary); limitation of the Presidential office to two terms; and public sector reforms that strengthened or introduced such oversight agencies as Office of the Auditor General, GICO, DCEC and Office of the Ombudsman (a Vision 2016 goal).
â–² There is a high belief in the ‘Rule of law’ in Botswana, according to a number of international surveys and indices
â–º But, the Vision 2016 goal of the need for a law reform structure within Botswana (to ensure that the country has relevant and up-to-date and effective laws) has still not been addressed
â–º When assessed worldwide, the country’s ranking on ‘perception of corruption’ (by Transparency International) is dropping
â–º In terms of service delivery, there are still challenges and apparent low customer satisfaction with the public service
â–º The new Office of the Ombudsman exhibits growing pains that challenge and impact its effectiveness
Open and Transparent Government
â–² Botswana ranked 3rd in Africa by Ibrahim Index of African Governance, with high ratings for ‘willingness of the government to respect the rights of citizens to take part in the affairs of the state’ and ‘fighting poor ethics in the public service’
â–² Botswana ranked highest of SADC countries by WGI for ‘Voice and Accountability’, that is: ‘the extent that Batswana are able to participate in selecting their government’ and ‘enjoyment of freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media’.
â–² Freedom of association guaranteed in the Constitution and civil society active through a number of associations, many of which fall under the umbrella organization BOCONGO. The private sector, through its association, BOCCIM, has the opportunity to consult with and provide feedback to senior government officials on a number of occasions over any given year.
â–² The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) was set up to oversee the national and local electoral process and is currently trying to improve voter turnout at elections by increasing the registration of ‘eligible’ voters.
â–º Despite continued high rankings in Africa, Botswana’s world-wide ranking on ‘Voice and Accountability’ has been in decline
â–º The media (through its association, MISA) and some others have complained of a lack of ‘freedom of information’ legislation
â–º And, there is some concern with apathy among Batswana when it comes to electing their government
Vision Pillar 6: ‘A Moral and Tolerant Nation’
Discrimination-free Society
â–² Greater tolerance and acceptance of differences between people - their religion, language, ethnic background. Indications are that Batswana generally do not feel discriminated against in terms of ‘their freedom to choose what to do with their lives’.
â–² Greater gender sensitivity and equality of opportunities for women, though many women still feel that negative social attitudes towards the status and role of women have not been completely removed from society.
National Moral and Cultural Values
â–ºA general increase in overall crime, including violent crime, raises concern whether Batswana in general will in future be considered as well-behaved and law abiding.
â–º Transition from the ‘traditional’ to the ‘nuclear’ family has put pressure on the institution of the family in Botswana, the central institution for the support and development of young Batswana, including for the transmission of social and moral values.
Vision Pillar 7: ‘A United and Proud Nation’
National Unity
â–² In spite of small population, Botswana has produced some top World Class athletes; potential role models for young Batswana.
â–º Until recently, sport and culture have not been a priority for government. More investment in grass root sport development and community facilities needed, as well as coaches and other trained sports personnel.
â–º Development of Botswana heritage and culture until recently not seen as a priority for funding by government.
Social Stability
â–²Number of factors promoting social stability: fostering religious freedom; celebrating cultural diversity; ensuring tribal neutrality in the Constitution; and long tradition of respecting the rights of citizens to take part in the affairs of government
The Institution of the Family
â–² The incidence of teenage childbearing has been steadily dropping (17% in 1996 to 12% in 2006), though factors in addition to ‘responsible parenting’ could also be responsible for this trend.
â–º A transformation, from the ‘traditional’ family to the ‘nuclear’ family, is changing the family unit and imposing more responsibility on the shoulders of parents in the day-to-day upbringing of their children; some feeling ill-equipped.
â–º Other factors undermining the family unit – the impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans; and, the apparent tolerance for multiple partners, particularly men. The latter serves as poor role model for children and increases risk associated with spread of HIV/AIDS.